5 Business Problems You Can Solve With Temporal Tables

Published on: 2017-06-20

It’s 4:30 pm on Friday and Mr. Manager comes along to tell you that he needs you to run some important ad-hoc analysis for him.

Previously this meant having to stay late at the office, writing cumbersome queries to extract business information from transactional data.

Lucky for you, you’ve recently started using Temporal Tables in SQL Server ensuring that you’ll be able to answer your boss’s questions and still make it to happy hour for $3 margaritas.

Sound like a plan? Keep reading below!

The Data

For these demos, we’ll be using my imaginary car rental business data. It consists of our temporal table dbo.CarInventory and our history table dbo.CarInventoryHistory:

I’ve upgraded my business — we now have FOUR Chevy Malibus available for you to rent

Business Problem #1 — “Get me current inventory!”

To get our current inventory of rental cars, all we have to do is query the temporal table:

SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventory

That’s it.

I know this query seems lame — it’s just a SELECT FROM statement. There are no FOR SYSTEM TIME clauses, WHERE statements, and no other interesting T-SQL features.

But that’s the point! Have you ever had to get the “current” rows out of a table that is keeping track of all transactions? I’m sure it involved some GROUP BY statements, some window functions, and more than a few cups of coffee.

Temporal tables automatically manage your transaction history, providing the most current records in one table (dbo.CarInventory) and all of the historical transactions in another (dbo.CarInventoryHistory). No need for complicated queries.

Business Problem #2 — “How many miles on average do our customers drive each of our cars?”

In this example, we use FOR SYSTEM_TIME ALL and a plain old GROUP BY to get the data we need:

SELECT
  CarId, AVG(Mileage) AS AverageMileage
FROM
  dbo.CarInventory FOR SYSTEM_TIME ALL
WHERE
  InLot = 1 -- The car has been successfully returned to our lot
  AND SysStartTime > '2017-05-13 08:00:00.0000000' -- Ignore our initial car purchase
GROUP BY
  CarId
Some cars get driven a lot more. Causation or correlation?

FOR SYSTEM_TIME ALL returns all rows from both the temporal and history table. It’s equivalent to:

SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventory 
UNION ALL 
SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventoryHistory

Once again, there isn’t anything too fancy going on here — but that’s the point. With temporal tables, your data is organized to make analysis easier.

Business Problem #3 — “How many cars do we rent out week over week?”

Here at Wagner Car Rentals we want to figure out how often our cars are being rented and see how those numbers change from week to week.

SELECT
  CurrentWeek.CarId,
  CurrentWeek.RentalCount AS CurrentRentalCount,
  PreviousWeek.RentalCount AS PreviousRentalCount
FROM
  (
  SELECT
    CarId,
    COUNT(*) AS RentalCount
  FROM
    dbo.CarInventory FOR SYSTEM_TIME FROM '2017-06-05' TO '2017-06-12'
  WHERE
    InLot = 0 -- Car is out with the customer
  GROUP BY
    CarId
  ) CurrentWeek
  FULL JOIN
  (
  SELECT
    CarId,
    COUNT(*) AS RentalCount
  FROM
    dbo.CarInventory FOR SYSTEM_TIME FROM '2017-05-29' TO '2017-06-05'
  WHERE
    InLot = 0 -- Car is out with the customer
  GROUP BY
    CarId
  ) PreviousWeek
  ON CurrentWeek.CarId = PreviousWeek.CarId

In this query, we are using FOR SYSTEM_TIME FOR/TO on our temporal table to specify what data we want in our “CurrentWeek” and “PreviousWeek” subqueries.

FOR/TO returns any records that were active during the specified range(BETWEEN/AND does the same thing, but its upper bound datetime2 value is inclusive instead of exclusive).

Business Problem #4 — “What color cars are rented most often?”

We’re thinking of expanding our fleet of rental vehicles and want to purchase cars in the most popular colors so we can keep customers happy (and get more of their business!). How can we tell which color cars get rented most often?

SELECT 
  CarId, 
  Color, 
  COUNT(*)/2 AS RentalCount -- Divide by 2 because transactions are double counted (rental and return dates)
FROM 
  dbo.CarInventory FOR SYSTEM_TIME CONTAINED IN ('2017-05-15','2017-06-15')
GROUP BY 
  CarId,
  Color

Here we use CONTAINED IN because we want to get precise counts of how many cars were rented and returned in a specific date range (if a car wasn’t returned — stolen, wrecked and totaled, etc… — we don’t want to purchase more of those colors in the future).

Business Problem #5 — “Jerry broke it. FIX IT!”

The computer systems that we use at Wagner Car Rentals are a little…dated.

Instead of scanning a bar code to return a car back into our system, our employees need to manually type in the car details. The problem here is that some employees (like Jerry) can’t type, and often makes typos:

SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventory FOR SYSTEM_TIME ALL WHERE CarId = 4

Having inconsistent data makes our reporting much more difficult, but fortunately since we have our temporal table tracking row-level history, we can easily correct Jerry’s typos by pulling the correct values from a previous record:

;WITH InventoryHistory  
AS  
(   
  SELECT ROW_NUMBER () OVER (PARTITION BY CarId ORDER BY SysStartTime DESC) AS RN, *  
  FROM dbo.CarInventory FOR SYSTEM_TIME ALL WHERE CarId = 4  
)  
--SELECT * FROM InventoryHistory
/*Update current row by using N-th row version from history (default is 1 - i.e. last version)*/  
UPDATE dbo.CarInventory   
  SET Color = h.Color  
  FROM 
    dbo.CarInventory i 
    INNER JOIN InventoryHistory h 
       ON i.CarId = h.CarId 
       AND RN = 2
Typos fixed!

Although we could have fixed this issue without using a temporal table, it shows how having all of the row-level transaction history makes it possible to repair incorrect data in more difficult scenarios. For even hairier situations, you can even roll-back your temporal table data.

Conclusion

Temporal tables are easy to setup and make writing analytical queries a cinch.

Hopefully writing queries against temporal tables will prevent you from having to stay late in the office the next time your manager asks you to run some ad-hoc analysis.

 

Thanks for reading. You might also enjoy following me on Twitter.

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How To Roll-Back Data in a Temporal Table

Published on: 2017-05-30

The Big Red Button” by włodi used under CC BY-SA 2.0 / Cropped and text added from original

You can watch this blog post on YouTube too!

So you’ve started using temporal tables because they make your point-in-time analysis queries super easy.

Your manager is happy because you’re getting historical data to him quickly. Your DBA is happy because she doesn’t have to clean up any performance killing triggers that replicate a temporal table’s functionality. Everything with temporal tables has made your life better.

Except that time when you accidentally inserted some bad data into your temporal table.

Whoops

The good news is that all of your data is still intact — it’s been copied over to the historical table. Phew!

Now all you need to do is rollback this inadvertent row insertion and make your tables look just like you did before you started breaking them.

This should be easy right?

Well not exactly — there’s no automatic way to roll back the data in a temporal table. However, that doesn’t mean we can’t write some clever queries to accomplish the same thing.

Let’s make some data

Don’t mind the details of this next query too much. It uses some non-standard techniques to fake the data into a temporal/historical table with “realistic” timestamps:

IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.CarInventory', 'U') IS NOT NULL 
BEGIN
 -- When deleting a temporal table, we need to first turn versioning off
 ALTER TABLE dbo.CarInventory SET ( SYSTEM_VERSIONING = OFF  ) 
 DROP TABLE dbo.CarInventory
 DROP TABLE dbo.CarInventoryHistory
END;
CREATE TABLE CarInventory   
(    
 CarId INT IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL,
 Year INT,
 Make VARCHAR(40),
 Model VARCHAR(40),
 Color varchar(10),
 Mileage INT,
 InLot BIT NOT NULL DEFAULT 1   
);
CREATE TABLE CarInventoryHistory  
(    
 CarId INT NOT NULL,
 Year INT,
 Make VARCHAR(40),
 Model VARCHAR(40),
 Color varchar(10),
 Mileage INT,
 InLot BIT NOT NULL,
 SysStartTime datetime2 NOT NULL, 
 SysEndTime datetime2   NOT NULL 
); 

INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventoryHistory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot,SysStartTime,SysEndTime) VALUES(1,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Black',0,1,'2017-05-13 8:00:00.0000000','2017-05-14 8:00:00.0000000');
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventoryHistory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot,SysStartTime,SysEndTime) VALUES(2,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Silver',0,1,'2017-05-13 8:00:00.0000000','2017-05-14 9:00:00.0000000');
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventoryHistory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot,SysStartTime,SysEndTime) VALUES(1,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Black',0,0,'2017-05-14 8:00:00.0000000','2017-05-15 7:00:00.0000000');
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventoryHistory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot,SysStartTime,SysEndTime) VALUES(2,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Silver',0,0,'2017-05-14 9:00:00.0000000','2017-05-19 15:00:00.0000000');
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventoryHistory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot,SysStartTime,SysEndTime) VALUES(1,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Black',73,1,'2017-05-15 7:00:00.0000000','2017-05-16 10:00:00.0000000');
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventoryHistory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot,SysStartTime,SysEndTime) VALUES(2,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Silver',488,1,'2017-05-19 15:00:00.0000000','2017-05-20 08:00:00.0000000');
ALTER TABLE dbo.CarInventory
ADD SysStartTime DATETIME2 GENERATED ALWAYS AS ROW START NOT NULL
 CONSTRAINT DF_SysStart DEFAULT SYSUTCDATETIME(),
SysEndTime DATETIME2 GENERATED ALWAYS AS ROW END NOT NULL
 CONSTRAINT DF_SysEnd DEFAULT '9999-12-31 23:59:59.9999999',
PERIOD FOR SYSTEM_TIME (SysStartTime, SysEndTime);
SET IDENTITY_INSERT dbo.CarInventory ON;
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot) VALUES(1,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Black',120,1);
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot) VALUES(2,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Silver',591,1);
SET IDENTITY_INSERT dbo.CarInventory OFF;
-- We need to make sure that the last SysEndTimes in our historical table match the SysStartTimes in our temporal table
DECLARE @LastSysStartTimeInTemporalCar1 DATETIME2, @LastSysStartTimeInTemporalCar2 DATETIME2
SELECT @LastSysStartTimeInTemporalCar1 = SysStartTime FROM dbo.CarInventory WHERE CarId = 1
SELECT @LastSysStartTimeInTemporalCar2 = SysStartTime FROM dbo.CarInventory WHERE CarId = 2
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventoryHistory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot,SysStartTime,SysEndTime) VALUES(1,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Black',73,0,'2017-05-16 10:00:00.0000000',@LastSysStartTimeInTemporalCar1);
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventoryHistory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage,InLot,SysStartTime,SysEndTime) VALUES(2,2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Silver',488,0,'2017-05-20 08:00:00.0000000',@LastSysStartTimeInTemporalCar2);
ALTER TABLE dbo.CarInventory SET ( SYSTEM_VERSIONING = ON (HISTORY_TABLE = dbo.CarInventoryHistory));
-- If everything worked well, we should see our data correctly in these table
SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventory
SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventoryHistory

If you look at the results of our temporal table (top) and historical table (bottom), they should look something like this:

This data represents my totally real, very very not-fake rental car business.

You see those two rows in the top temporal table? Those are the ones I just added accidentally. I actually had a bug in my code *ahem* and all of the data inserted after 2017–05–18 is erroneous.

The bug has been fixed, but we want to clean up the incorrect entries and roll back the data in our temporal tables to how it looked on 2017–05–18. Basically, we want the following two rows to appear in our “current” temporal table and the historical table to be cleaned up of any rows inserted after 2017–05–18:

Fortunately, we can query our temporal table using FOR SYSTEM_TIME AS OF to get the two rows highlighted above pretty easily. Let’s do that and insert into a temp table called ##Rollback:

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS ##Rollback
SELECT
 *
INTO ##Rollback
FROM 
 dbo.CarInventory
FOR SYSTEM_TIME AS OF '2017-05-18'
-- Update the SysEndTime to the max value because that's what it's always set to in the temporal table
UPDATE ##Rollback SET SysEndTime = '9999-12-31 23:59:59.9999999'

You’ll notice we also updated the SysEndTime — that’s because a temporal table always has its AS ROW END column set to the max datetime value.

Looking at ##Rollback, we have the data we want to insert into our temporal table:

This is the data we want!

Now, it’d be nice if we could just insert the data from #Rollback straight into our temporal table, but that would get tracked by the temporal table!

So instead, we need to turn off system versioning, allow identity inserts, delete our existing data, and insert from ##Rollback. Basically:

ALTER TABLE dbo.CarInventory SET ( SYSTEM_VERSIONING = OFF);
SET IDENTITY_INSERT dbo.CarInventory ON;
DELETE FROM dbo.CarInventory WHERE CarId IN (SELECT DISTINCT CarId FROM ##Rollback)
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventory (CarId,Year,Make,Model,Mileage,Color,InLot)
SELECT CarId,Year,Make,Model,Mileage,Color,InLot
FROM ##Rollback

While system versioning is off, we can also clean up the historical table by deleting all records after 2017–05–18 by joining the ##Rollback temp table on SysStartTime:

DELETE h
FROM ##Rollback t
  INNER JOIN dbo.CarInventoryHistory h 
  ON
    h.CarId = t.CarId
    AND t.SysStartTime <= h.SysStartTime

We have rolled back our data successfully!

Only One Tiny Problem

Did you notice that the last SysEndTime values in our historical table don’t match up with the SysStartTime values in our temporal table?

This is a data integrity issue for our temporal table — our datetimes should always be continuous.

Fortunately this is easily fixed with one more UPDATE statement:

UPDATE t
SET t.SysEndTime = i.SysStartTime
FROM dbo.CarInventoryHistory t
 INNER JOIN ##Rollback r 
  ON t.CarId = r.CarId
  AND t.SysEndTime = r.SysStartTime
 INNER JOIN dbo.CarInventory i
  ON t.CarId = i.CarId
  AND r.CarId = i.CarId
SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventory
SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventoryHistory
Our correctly rolled back temporal table

Finally, remember to turn system versioning back on and to turn off our identity inserts to restore the original functionality of our temporal tables:

ALTER TABLE dbo.CarInventory SET ( SYSTEM_VERSIONING = ON (HISTORY_TABLE = dbo.CarInventoryHistory));
SET IDENTITY_INSERT dbo.CarInventory OFF;

Congratulations, you’ve rolled back your temporal table data!

 

Thanks for reading. You might also enjoy following me on Twitter.

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How To Use Temporal Tables For Easy Point-In-Time Analysis

Published on: 2017-05-23

Bordeaux, The Grand Theatre” by Stefano Montagner is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

You can watch this blog post on YouTube too!

Have you ever needed to look at what data in a table used to look like?

If you have, it probably took a knuckle-cracking filled session of writing group-by statements, nested sub-queries, and window functions to write your time-travelling query.

Sorry for your lost day of productivity — I’ve been there too.

Fortunately for us, SQL Server 2016 introduces a new feature to make our point-in-time analysis queries easy to write: temporal tables.

Temporal Tables? Are Those The Same As Temporary Tables?

Don’t let the similar sounding name fool you: “temporal” <> “temporary”.

Temporal tables consist of two parts:

  1. The temporal table — this is the table that contains the current values of your data.
  2. The historical table — this table holds all of the previous values that at some point existed in your temporal table.

You might have created a similar setup yourself in previous versions of SQL using triggers. However, using a temporal table is different from this because:

  1. You don’t need to write any triggers/stored procedures! All of the history tracking is done automatically by SQL Server.
  2. Retrieving the data uses a simple WHERE clause — no complex querying required.

I want to make my life easier by using temporal tables! Take my money and show me how!

I’m flattered by your offer, but since we are good friends I’ll let you in on these secrets for free.

First let’s create a temporal table. I’m thinking about starting up a car rental business, so let’s model it after that:

IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.CarInventory', 'U') IS NOT NULL 
BEGIN
 -- When deleting a temporal table, we need to first turn versioning off
 ALTER TABLE [dbo].[CarInventory] SET ( SYSTEM_VERSIONING = OFF  ) 
 DROP TABLE dbo.CarInventory
 DROP TABLE dbo.CarInventoryHistory
END
CREATE TABLE CarInventory   
(    
 CarId INT IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY,
 Year INT,
 Make VARCHAR(40),
 Model VARCHAR(40),
 Color varchar(10),
 Mileage INT,
 InLot BIT NOT NULL DEFAULT 1,
 SysStartTime datetime2 GENERATED ALWAYS AS ROW START NOT NULL,
 SysEndTime datetime2 GENERATED ALWAYS AS ROW END NOT NULL,
 PERIOD FOR SYSTEM_TIME (SysStartTime, SysEndTime)     
)   
WITH 
( 
 SYSTEM_VERSIONING = ON (HISTORY_TABLE = dbo.CarInventoryHistory)   
)

The key things to note with our new table above are that

  1. it contains a PRIMARY KEY.
  2. it contains two datetime2 fields, marked with GENERATED ALWAYS AS ROW START/END.
  3. It contains the PERIOD FOR SYSTEM_TIME statement.
  4. It contains the SYSTEM_VERSIONING = ON property with the (optional) historical table name (dbo.CarInventoryHistory).

If we query our newly created tables, you’ll notice our column layouts are identical:

SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventory
SELECT * FROM dbo.CarInventoryHistory

Let’s fill it with the choice car of car rental agencies all across the U.S. — the Chevy Malibu:

INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventory (Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage) VALUES(2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Black',0)
INSERT INTO dbo.CarInventory (Year,Make,Model,Color,Mileage) VALUES(2017,'Chevy','Malibu','Silver',0)
Although we got some unassuming car models, at least we can express our individuality with two different paint colors!

In all of the remaining screen shots, the top result is our temporal table dbo.CarInventory and the bottom result is our historical table dbo.CarInventoryHistory.

You’ll notice that since we’ve only inserted one row for each our cars, there’s no row history yet and therefore our historical table is empty.

Let’s change that by getting some customers and renting out our cars!

UPDATE dbo.CarInventory SET InLot = 0 WHERE CarId = 1
UPDATE dbo.CarInventory SET InLot = 0 WHERE CarId = 2

Now we see our temporal table at work: we updated the rows in dbo.CarInventory and our historical table was automatically updated with our original values as well as timestamps for how long those rows existed in our table.

After a while, our customers return their rental cars:

UPDATE dbo.CarInventory SET InLot = 1, Mileage = 73  WHERE CarId = 1
UPDATE dbo.CarInventory SET InLot = 1, Mileage = 488 WHERE CarId = 2
It’s totally possible for someone to have driven 73 or 488 miles in a Chevy Malibu in under 4 minutes…ever hear the phrase “drive it like a rental”?

Our temporal table show the current state of our rental cars: the customers have returned the cars back to our lot and each car has accumulated some mileage.

Our historical table meanwhile got a copy of the rows from our temporal table right before our last UPDATE statement. It’s automatically keeping track of all of this history for us!

Continuing on, business is going well at the car rental agency. We get another customer to rent our silver Malibu:

UPDATE dbo.CarInventory SET InLot = 0 WHERE CarId = 2

Unfortunately, our second customer gets into a crash and destroys our car:

DELETE FROM dbo.CarInventory WHERE CarId = 2
The customer walked away from the crash unscathed; the same can not be said for our profits.

With the deletion of our silver Malibu, our test data is complete.

Now that we have all of this great historically tracked data, how can we query it?

If we want to reminisce about better times when both cars were damage free and we were making money, we can write a query using SYSTEM_TIME AS OF to show us what our table looked like at that point in the past:

SELECT
 *
FROM 
 dbo.CarInventory
FOR SYSTEM_TIME AS OF '2017-05-18 23:49:50'
The good old days.

And if we want to do some more detailed analysis, like what rows have been deleted, we can query both temporal and historical tables normally as well:

-- Find the CarIds of cars that have been wrecked and deleted
SELECT DISTINCT
 h.CarId AS DeletedCarId
FROM
 dbo.CarInventory t
 RIGHT JOIN dbo.CarInventoryHistory h
  ON t.CarId = h.CarId 
WHERE 
 t.CarId IS NULL

C̶o̶l̶l̶i̶s̶i̶o̶n̶ Conclusion

Even with my car rental business not working out, at least we were able to see how SQL Server’s temporal tables helped us keep track of our car inventory data.

I hope you got as excited as I did the first time I saw temporal tables in action, especially when it comes to querying with FOR SYSTEM_TIME AS OF. Long gone are the days of needing complicated queries to rebuild data for a certain point in time.

 

Thanks for reading. You might also enjoy following me on Twitter.

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